Injuries and rarely cancer can cause acute pain. All these conditions require treatment and some should be seen either urgently, or if the pain is very sudden and severe (which may mean a twisted testicle) as an emergency.
Chronic testicular pain is pain that continues for months or more. This is very common and can be caused by testicular swelling (for example hydrocoele, varicocoele, post-vasectomy swelling or cysts), testicular inflammation or rarely testicular cancer. Sometimes there is a non-testicular reason for the pain, such as hernia, prostatitis, kidney stones or even back problems. Often it is difficult to know for certain the exact reason for pain.
Treatment depends on the cause of pain, and often an ultrasound of the testicles, blood and urine tests are used to make a diagnosis. Acute testicular pain may need urgent surgery if there is suspicion of tumour or torsion. Antibiotics, rest and painkillers usually cure acute testicular infection.
Chronic pain might be improved be surgery, if there is an underlying problem, although it is more difficult to treat chronic pain, and after ruling serious problems, it might be that living with the pain with the help of pain killers is best.
Our Consultants often treat men with testicular pain and will advise about the best management.