In an article published in Trends in Urology and Men’s health, Scott discusses the role of screening for urological cancer. These cancers accounted for more than 58,000 new diagnoses in UK in 2008, compared 48,000 for breast cancer. They accounted for over 20,000 deaths in 2009 compared to 35,000 for lung cancer. Screening can improve mortality for some cancer types, but screening for urological malignancies is yet to be proven. In the case of prostate cancer 2 large studies show conflicting results using PSA as the screening test; PLCO screened 38343 men with 38350 controls with a relative risk of cancer mortality favouring controls at 1.1. ERSPC, which was methodologically at better trial screened 72952 men with 89245 controls and a relative risk favouring screening of 0.80. The ERSPC study suggested that screening 100,000 men prevents 73 prostate cancer deaths, with treatment causing considerable harm; 3169 cases of erectile dysfunction, 925 cases of incontinence and 11 deaths. Screening for bladder cancer with available tools is similarly not cost effective compared to current opportunistic dipstick testing and investigation of haematuria.